Spider Toxin

TOXICOLOGY

Agelenidae

TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Agelena orientalis Agelenin
Agel 01-25
Agelenopsis aperta AG 489TRP1 antagonist
AG 505Aceylpolyamine toxin
µ-agatoxin 1-6Na+ channel antagonist
w-Aga I-IVACa2+ channels antagonist
Hololena curta Curtatoxin I-IIINa+ channel agonist
Holena sp.HF-7Blocks receptors in the nerve cell membranes and prevent glutamate production
Tegenaria agrestis TaITX-1-3Paralytic insecticidal toxin


Araneidae


TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Araneus ventricosus Toxin 1Serine protease inhibitor
Toxin 2
Caerostris extrusa Neurotoxic peptide caeron
Parawixia bistriata Parawixin-IParawixin-I selectively affects a glial glutamate transporter, excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) by specifically increasing one particular step of the glutamate uptake cycle. Its specificity and selectivity makes Parawixin-I a perfect starting point to design small molecules for the treatment of pathological conditions caused by alterations of glutamate homeostasis.

Ctenidae

TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Ancylometes sp.Neurotoxin ANC32C7
Neurotoxin ANC45C1
Venom protein ANC29C0
Ctenus ornatus Neurotoxin-OcFU-5,
OcM31-11, OcM10-6, OcM9-7, OcM14-5, OcM14-9, OcM20-3,
OcM33-7, OcF17-11, OcF22, OcF29-9, OcF32-8, OcF35-5,
OcF40-4, OcFU-18,
Venom peptide – F13-4,
M14-8, OcF9-5,
OctF25-6, OctF30-12
Cupiennius salei CSTX-9
CSTX-13CSTX-I
Insecticidal
Neurotoxin
Selective blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels in mammalian neurons
Cupiennin – 1a, 1b, 1d, 1a*, 1d*Pronounced insecticidal activity and membrane destroying mode of action on prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic cells
Lachesana tarabaevi Latarcin (1 to 7)Lytic effects on cells of diverse origin at micromolar concentrations.
Phoneutria nigriventer PhTx4 (6-1)Na+ channel antagonist
PhTx3-4Inhibits glutamate uptake in synaptosomes
PhTx3-1K+ channel antagonist
w-PTxIIABlock presynaptic Ca2+ channel
Lycosidae

TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Geolycosa sp.w-Lsp-1AAct on voltage gated Ca2+ channels in vertebrates
w-Lsp-1A (1-5)Cav 2.1
Hogna carolinensis   (i)  Lycotoxin I
  (ii) Lycotoxin II
Promote efflux of Ca2+ from synaptosomes, to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes. Dissipate voltage gradients across muscle membrane. Antimicrobial assays showed that both lycotoxins potently inhibit the growth of bacteria (E. coli) and yeast (Candida glabrata) at micromolar concentrations.
Lycosa erythrognatha BPP-SInhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme
Peptide-SAct at bradykinin receptor based on bradykinin like activity
Nephilidae
Taxa Important protein isolated from the toxin Importance
1.Nephila clavataJSTX-1
JSTX-2
JSTX-3
JSTX-4
Useful in stydying receptors for excitatory aminoacids in the mammalian central nervous system.

Proteins have been shown to be a specific blocker of the post synaptic glutamate receptors.
2.Nephila madagascariensisNPTX-594
3.Nephila pilipes NSTX-1
NSTX-2
NSTX-3
NSTX-4
NSTX-5
NSTX-6
(hydroxyl-3-yl)acetyl moiety
NSTX-7
NSTX-8
NSTX-9
NSTX-10
NSTX-11
NSTX-12
(indole-3-yl) acetyl moiety

Oxyopidae

TaxaImportant protein isolated from the toxinImportance
1.Oxyopes takobius (1) Oxyopinins
Oxyopinin 1 (48 aa residues) Oxyopinin 2a Oxyopinin 2b Oxyopinin 2c Oxyopinin 2d
Peptides with antimicrobial, hemolytic & insecticidal activity ability to block voltage sensitive calcium ion channels
(2) Oxytoxins Oxy Tx1 (69 aa residues)
2.Oxyopes lineatus (1) Oxytoxins Oxy Tx1 (69 aa residues) Oxy Tx2 (55 aa residues)


Peucetia viridans Venom :

Preparation :
Milked venoms are harvested from the fangs using numerous precautions to protect them from contamination by regurgitate and hemolymph. Typically, spiders are lightly anesthetized with carbondioxide, the mouth is suctioned to remove regurgitate and mild electric stimulation is used to stimulate venom release.
       Venom glands are typically dissected from anesthetized animals, rinsed in physiological saline to remove adhering fluids and placed in excess RNA later.
Composition :
Venoms usually have about 10% protein. 5 microliters of venom will weigh approximately 1 mg after lyophilization and contain approximately 0.5 mg protein.
Typical uses :
mRNA extraction for PCR. Sequencing and protein expression.

Salticidae

TaxaToxin Name Importance
Phidippus appacheanus Hadrurin
Sparassidae
TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Heteropoda venatoria 1. Heteropodatoxin (HpTx) a) HpTx1 or AU3/KJ5
b) HpTx2 or KJ6
c) HpTx3 or AU5C/KJ7 These 3 toxins are structurally similar peptides of 29-32 aa.
They show sequence similarity to Hanatoxins [isolated from the venom of chilean rose tarantula (Grammostala rosea)]
Inhibitor of voltage gated potassium channels of the KV4 family Also blocks calcium channels.
Toxin AU2
Toxin KJ1
Toxin AU5A
Toxin AU5B
Non specific blocker of KV4 channels and weak blocker of calcium channels

Theraphosidae

Spider species Toxin Name Toxin Activity
Aphonopelma sp.Eurypelma spider toxin 1
Eurypelma spider toxin 2
Brachypelma albiceps Ba1 & Ba2Toxins with insecticidal activity
Brachypelma smithi Bs1, venom protein 1,
venom protein 5
Toxins with insecticidal activity
Ceratogyrus marshalli Ceratotoxin 1, 2, 3Na+ channel antagonist
Chilobrachys jingzhao JZTx 1Inhibits deactivation of cardiac sodium channels without affecting tetrodotoxin resistant sodium channels
JZTx IIIInhibits activation of tetrotoxin insensitive voltage gated sodium channels without affecting VGSGs or Ca2+
Jingzhaotoxin-5Inhibit both tetrodotoxin resistant and tetrodotoxin sensitive volgate gated Na+ channels and Kv4.2 channels
Jingzhaotoxin-7
Jingzhaotoxin-11Inhibits voltage gated Na+ (especially Nav1.5) and potassium channels (especially Kv2.1, Kv4.2 & Kv4.1)
Jingzhaotoxin-12Inhibits voltage-gated K+ channels of the subtypes Kv4.1
Coremiocnemis valida Covalitoxin-2Toxins with insecticidal activity
Grammostola rosea Grammotoxin SIAOmega grammotoxin : inhibits P/Q and N type Ca2+ channels
GSMTX-2
GSMTx-4
Stretch-activated ion channel (SACs) antagonist
HaTx 1
(Hanatoxin 1)
HaTx 2
(Hantoxin 2)
Peptide : K+ channel (KV 2.1) antagonist
PaTx 1
(Phrixotoxin 1)
PaTx 2
PaTx 3
Selective block of KV 4.2 and KV 4.3 potassium channels
VSTx 1K+ channel antagonist
Haplopelma hainanum Hainantoxin-VInhibits TTX sensitive but not TTX resistant voltage gated Na+ channels
Hainantoxin-III & IVInhibits neuronal TTX-sensitive voltage gated Na+ channels
Hainantoxin-IInhibits voltage gated sodium channels
Heteroscodra maculata HmTx 1
HmTx 2
KV 2 potassium channels antagonist
Hysterocrates gigas SNX-482Ca2+ channels antagonist
Lasiodora parahybanaLasiotoxin 1 & 2
Ornithoctonus huwena HwTx 4
(Huwentoxin H)
TTX sensitive sodium (Na+) channel antagonist
Paraphysa scrofa Phrixotoxin-1,2Inhibits voltage gated K+ channels Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 by shifting channels activation to more deplorized potentials
Phrixotoxin-3Inhibits several subtypes of voltage gated Na+ channels especially Nav1.2
Plesiophrictus guangxiensis GuangxitoxinInhibitor of K(V) 2.1 / K(V) 2.2 channels
Psalmopoeus cambridgei PcFK 1
PcFK 2
(Psalmopeotoxin)
Antimalarial peptides
PeTx 1
(Psalmotoxin 1)
Inhibits proton activation of acid sensitive ion channels (ASIC 1a)
VanillotoxinsCapsacin receptor agonists
Stromatopelma calceata ScTx 1High affinity inhibitor of KV 2.2 and also inhibits KV 2.1
Theraphosa leblondi TLTx 1
TITx 2
TITx 3
Inhibits KV 4.2 potassium channels
Thrixopelma pruriens ProTx-1
ProTx-II
First high-affinity ligands for tetrodotoxin-resistant peripheral nerve Na (V) channels, but also inhibit other Na (V) channels

Theridiidae

TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (A) Alpha latrotoxin (130 KDa)
    [3 receptor for alpha latrotoxin :
      i)   Neurexin
      ii)  Latrophilin
      iii) Protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma]
Binds to presynaptic nerve terminals and stimulates massive neurotransmitter release Latrotoxin tetramer can form ion permeable pores in the membrane of target cells, causing influx of calcium ions and thus leading to massive neurotransmitter release
(B) Latrocrusta toxinPresynaptic toxin (crustaceans)
(C) Latroinsecto toxinPresynaptic toxin (insects)
Latrodectin
LMWP2Act on presynaptic nerve terminal

Thomisidae

TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Heriaeus melloteei Hm-1
Hm-2
Inhibits voltage gated Na+ channels


Zodariidae

TaxaImportant proteins isolated from the toxin Importance
Lachesana tarabaevi Latarcin-1, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5, 6a, 6b, 6c, 7Toxins with cytolytic, antibacterial and hemolytic activity
Cyto-insectotoxin1Toxins with antibacterial, insecticidal and cytolytic activity
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